Human Genome Decoded- UPSC Current Affairs
In today’s edition of Current Affairs Dialog box, we will discuss Human Genome and its relevance to the UPSC CSE syllabus. The topic is crucial from the UPSC exam preparation point of view. Hence, it should be studied in depth.
For Prelims: General Science
For Mains: Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life
Click here to read yesterday’s edition of Current Affairs in case you missed it.
Examine the significance of the Human Genome Project in studying genetic variation of populations.
Why in the News?
Recently, a team of scientists has sequenced the leftover 8 percent of the Human Genome.
- In the early 2000s, about 92 percent of the genome had been decoded under the Human Genome Project. Now, the remaining eight percent has been sequenced. The findings are described in six papers in the journal, Science.
- This fully sequenced genome is the result of the efforts of a global collaboration called the Telomere-2-Telomere (T2T) project.
- In the Telomere-2-Telomere (T2T) project, scientists have decoded the DNA in the heterochromatic region of the genome while the Human Genome Project decoded DNA present in the euchromatin region of the genome.
Image Source: The Financial Express
Why was Heterochromatin Left Out in the Human Genome Project?
- Initially, scientists deprioritized heterochromatin. Since the euchromatic regions contained more genes and were simpler to sequence, the genomic tools available at that time found euchromatic DNA easier to parse compared to heterochromatic DNA.
- In simple words, advanced tools to decode heterochromatin were not available. Those tools were developed over the years.
Telomere-2-Telomere (T2T) Project
- With laboratory techniques, computational biology approaches, and other essential research resources, scientists have decoded the DNA in heterochromatin.
- The new reference genome, called T2T-CHM13, includes highly repetitive DNA sequences found in and around the telomeres (structures at the ends of chromosomes) and the centromeres (at the middle section of each chromosome).
- The new sequence also reveals long stretches of DNA that are duplicated in the genome and are known to play important roles in evolution and disease.
- The findings have revealed a large number of genetic variations, and these variations appear in large part within these repeated sequences.
Take your UPSC CSE preparation to the next level with our Prelims Booster series. Watch this detailed video on Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation by our Current Affairs faculty, Prem Sodhani Sir:
Human Genome Project:
What is a Genome?
- A genome is the complete set of genetic information in an organism and provides all of the information the organism requires to function.
- The genome of living organisms is stored in long molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) called chromosomes.
- In humans, a copy of the entire genome — more than 3 billion DNA base pairs — is contained in all cells that have a nucleus”.
- A complete human genome makes it easier to study genetic variation between individuals or between populations.
- By constructing a complete human genome, scientists can use it for reference while studying the genome of various individuals, which would help them understand which variations, if any, might be responsible for the disease.
- The complete sequence will be valuable for studies that aim to establish comprehensive views of human genomic variation.
- The new T2T reference genome will complement the standard human reference genome, known as Genome Reference Consortium build 38 (GRCh38), which originated from the Human Genome Project and has been updated since.
- Genome mapping is helpful in figuring out the location of a specific gene on a particular region of the chromosome.
- Genome mapping enables scientists to gather evidence if a disease transmitted from the parent to the child is linked to one or more genes.
News Source: The Hindu
Download the Prepladder App for more informative articles like these and get access to well-structured and the most comprehensive study material for Civil Services exam preparation. You can also join our Telegram channel for UPSC exam preparation to apprise yourself with the latest information about the exam.
Own Your Dream
Connect on Instagram
FMGE June 2022 Exam Result Out SoonJun 24 , 2022
How to Crack CAT in 4 monthsJun 22 , 2022
UPSC CSE Prelims 2022 Results Declared. Check Now.Jun 22 , 2022
Sri Lanka Economic Crisis- UPSC Current AffairsApr 13 , 2022
Fundamental Rights in the Indian Constitution- NCERT Notes UPSCMar 15 , 2022
UPSC CSE 2022 Application Form Released. Check Eligibility Criteria, How To Apply.Feb 02 , 2022
UPSC Exam Calendar 2022 Released. Check CSE DatesJan 04 , 2022
Explained: UPSC Syllabus and Exam Pattern 2021Aug 12 , 2021