Must-Know Articles of the Indian Constitution
Indian Constitution is a common topic of UPSC Prelims and Mains examination curriculum. Indian polity and Governance is one such section that should be thoroughly studied when preparing for the exams. It has Articles that cover important parts of the Constitution including, Legislatures, Executive, Schedules, Parts of Indian Constitution, Constitutional Bodies, Statutory Bodies, Fundamental Rights, and more.
Every IAS aspirant must be aware of the articles of the Indian Constitution. Most of the Articles remain in the news throughout the year. Having a sound knowledge of crucial Articles will give you an edge and help you to ace the UPSC exams with ease.
It’s not expected from a UPSC aspirant to learn all the Articles word for word. However, one should have a fair idea about the salient features of the Indian Constitution such as Fundamental Rights, Federalism, Directive Principles of State Policy, An Independent Judiciary, etc.
In this article, we will highlight the main Articles of the Indian Constitution that you should study on priority. We will also discuss other constitutional articles for the UPSC Exam preparation.
Must-Know Articles of Indian Constitution
|Article 5-11||Deals with Citizenship|
|Article 12-35||Deal with the Fundamental Rights|
|Article 36-51||Specify the Directive Principles of State Policy|
|Article 51 A||Describes the Fundamental Duties of every citizen|
|Article 80||Specifies the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha|
|Article 81||Specifies the number of seats in the Lok Sabha|
|Article 356||Imposition of President’s Rule in states|
|Article 239-242||Describes Union Territories|
|Article 340-342||About Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, etc.|
|Article 245-263||Describe Centre-State Relations|
|Article 370||Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir|
|Article 343-351||Specifies about the Official Languages|
The above articles are important from the UPSC point of view and require attention as they are often in the news. Besides these articles, other articles carry equal importance and should not be missed during the UPSC exam preparation. Let’s have a look at other important articles of the Indian Constitution.
Also read: How to Prepare for UPSC Mains 2021?
Other Important Articles of the Indian Constitution
Part 1 – Article 1 to Article 4
- Article 1- Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and Establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and the name of existing states.
Part 2 – Article 5 to Article 11
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6- Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10- Continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Part 3 – Article 12 to Article 35
- Article 12- Definition of the state
- Article 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of fundamental rights.
- Originally, the constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by the 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
Some important Fundamental Rights are:
RIGHT TO EQUALITY: Article 14 TO Article 18
- Article 14- Equality before the law.
- Article 15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
- Article 16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 17- Abolition of untouchability.
- Article 18- Abolition of titles
RIGHT TO FREEDOM: Article 19 TO Article 22
- Article 19 guarantees to all the citizens the following six rights:
1. Right to freedom of speech and expression.
2. Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
3. Right to form associations or unions.
4. Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.
5. Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
6. Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
- Article 20- Protection in respect of conviction for offenses.
- Article 21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
- Article 21A -Right to education
- Article 22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION: Article 23 & Article 24
- Article 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
- Article 24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines under the age of 14.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION: Article 25 to Article 28
- Article 25- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.
- Article 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27- Freedom to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS: Article 29 & Article 30
- Article 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
- Article 30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
- Article 32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
Part 4- Directive Principle of states Policy: Article 36 to Article 51
- Article 36- Definition
- Article 37- Application of DPSP
- Article 39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40- Organisation of village panchayat
- Article 41- Right to work, to education, and public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
- Article 43A- Participation of workers in the management of industries.
- Article 44- Uniform civil code. ( applicable in Goa only)
- Article 45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST, and OBC.
- Article 47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50- Separation of judiciary from the executive.
- Article 51- Promotion of international peace and security.
Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by the 86th amendments act 2002.
Part 5 – Union: ARTICLE 52 to ARTICLE 151
- Article 52- The President of India
- Article 53- Executive Power of the union.
- Article 54- Election of President
- Article 61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
- Article 63- The Vice-president of India.
- Article 64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman of the Council of States.
- Article 66-Election of Vice-president.
- Article 72-Pardoning powers of the President.
- Article 74- Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President.
- Article 76- Attorney-General for India.
- Article 79- Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
- Article 81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
- Article 83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
- Article 93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
- Article 105- Powers, Privileges, etc of the House of Parliament.
- Article 109- Special procedure in respect of money bills
- Article 110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
- Article 112- Annual Financial Budget.
- Article 114-Appropriation Bills.
- Article 123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
- Article 124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
- Article 125- Salaries of Judges.
- Article 126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
- Article 127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
- Article 128-Attendance of a retired judge at a sitting of the Supreme Court.
- Article 129- Supreme court to be a court of Record.
- Article 130- Seat of the Supreme court.
- Article 136- Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court.
- Article 137- Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme court.
- Article 141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
- Article 148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
- Article 149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
Part 6 – States: ARTICLE 152 to ARTICLE 237
- Article 153- Governors of State
- Article 154- Executive Powers of Governor.
- Article 161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
- Article 165- Advocate-General of the State.
- Article 213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
- Article 214- High Courts for states.
- Article 215- High Courts to be a court of record.
- Article 226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
- Article 233- Appointment of District Judges.
- Article 235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
Part 7 – ARTICLE 238 – Repealed
Part 8 – ARTICLE 239 to ARTICLE 242 – Union Territories
Part 9 – ARTICLE 243- ARTICLE 243 O – Panchayats
- Article 243A- Gram Sabha
- Article 243B- Constitution of Panchayats
Part 9A – ARTICLE 243 P to ARTICLE 243 ZG – Municipalities
Part 9B – ARTICLE 243 ZH to ARTICLE 243 ZT- Co-operative Societies
Part 10: ARTICLE 244- ARTICLE 244A- Scheduled and Tribal Areas
Part 11: ARTICLE 245 to ARTICLE 263- Center- State Relations
Part 12: Finance, Property, Contracts, and Suits- ARTICLE 264 to ARTICLE 300A
- Article 266- Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267- Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280- Finance Commission
- Article 300-A- Right to property.
Part 13: Trade, Commerce, patterns intercourse within the territories of India-ARTICLE 301 to ARTICLE 307
- Article 301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
- Article 302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.
Part 14: Services Under Center and State: ARTICLE 308 to ARTICLE 323
- Article 312- All- India-Service.
- Article 315- Public service commissions for the union and the states
- Article 320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
Part 14A: Tribunals-ARTICLE 323 A to ARTICLE 323 B
- Article 323A- Administrative Tribunals
Part 15 : Elections- ARTICLE 324 to ARTICLE 329
- Article 324-Superintendence, direction, and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
- Article 325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
- Article 326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be based on adult suffrage.
Part 16: Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities, etc-ARTICLE 330 to ARTICLE 342
- Article 338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
- Article 340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
Part 17: Official Language- ARTICLE 343 to ARTICLE 351
- Article 343- Official languages of the Union.
- Article 345- Official languages or languages of states.
- Article 348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
- Article 351-Directive for development of the Hindi languages.
Part 18: Emergency- ARTICLE 352 to ARTICLE 360
- Article 352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
- Article 356- State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360- Financial Emergency
Part 19: Miscellaneous-ARTICLE 361 to ARTICLE 367
- Article 361- Protection of President and Governors
Part 20: Amendment of Constitution-ARTICLE 368
- Article 368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
Part 21: Special, Transitional and Temporary Provisions- ARTICLE 369 to ARTICLE 392
- Article 370 – Special provision of J&K.
- Article 371A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
- Article 371-J: Special Status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region
Part 22: Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals ARTICLE 392 to ARTICLE 395
- Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India.
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