National Report Of The NFHS-5 - UPSC Current Affairs

NFHS-5

Today we have picked the topic “National Report Of The NFHS-5” in our Daily edition of Current Affairs. We will talk about its relevance to the UPSC CSE syllabus and share some useful insights that will help you ace your UPSC CSE preparation.

For Prelims: Economic and Social Development

For Mains: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

Why in the News?

Recently, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has released the 2nd phase of fifth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) Report.

Probable Question

What are the key challenges of underage marriage in India? Do you think the ongoing government interventions address these challenges effectively? Critically examine

Key Findings of the latest data of NFHS-5

About Underage marriages

  • The underage marriage both in men and women has seen a decline from NFHS-4.
  • According to NFHS-5, 23.3% of women surveyed got married before attaining the legal age of 18 years, down from 26.8% reported in NFHS-4. 
  • The figure for underage marriage among men is 17.7% (NFHS-5) and 20.3% (NFHS-4).
  • Tripura has seen the largest jump in marriages under the legal age of 18 years for women from 33.1% (NFHS-4) to 40.1%, and from 16.2% to 20.4% among men.
  • West Bengal, along with Bihar, remains one of the states with the highest rate of underage marriages.
  • The biggest gains in improving legal marriage have been seen in Chhattisgarh, where underage marriages have come down from 21.3% to 12.1% among women and from 26.9% to 16.2% among men.
  • Underage marriages are lowest in J&K, Lakshadweep, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Goa, Nagaland, Kerala, Puducherry, and Tamil Nadu.
  • There are only five States in India which are above replacement level of fertility of 2.1Bihar (2.98), Meghalaya (2.91), Uttar Pradesh (2.35), Jharkhand (2.26) and Manipur (2.17).

Use of Modern Contraception

  • According to the survey, the knowledge of contraceptive methods is almost universal in India — more than 99% of married women and men aged between 15 and 49 know at least one modern method.
  • But the use of modern contraceptives for family planning is only 56.4%.

Total Fertility Rate

  • Total Fertility Rates, an average number of children per woman, have declined from 2.2 (NFHS-4) to 2.0 at the national level.
  • The Survey says only five states are above the replacement level of fertility of 2.1: Bihar (2.98), Meghalaya (2.91), Uttar Pradesh (2.35), Jharkhand (2.26) and Manipur (2.17).

Institutional Births

  • Institutional births having increased from 79% to 89% in India and in rural areas around 87% births being delivered in institutions and the same is 94% in urban areas.

Increase in obesity

  • Obesity has increased from 21% to 24% among women and 19% to 23% among men.

Also watch:

Immunization and Stunting

  • More than three-fourths (77%) children aged 12-23 months were fully immunised, compared with 62% in NFHS-4. 
  • The level of stunting among children under five years has marginally declined from 38% to 36% in the country since the last four years. 
    • Stunting is higher among children in rural areas (37%) than urban areas (30%) in 2019-21.

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About NFHS:The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India.

The main objective of successive rounds of the NFHS has been to provide reliable and comparable data relating to health and family welfare and other emerging areas in India.

The NFHS-5 National Report lists progress from NFHS-4 (2015-16) to NFHS-5 (2019-21).
Previous NFHS:
NFHS-1 (1992-93)NFHS-2 (1998-99)NFHS-3 (2005-2006)NFHS-4 (2014-2015)
About NFHS-5:The NFHS-5 survey was conducted in around 6.37 lakh sample households from 707 districts of the country from 28 States and 8 UTs.

The NFHS-5 data showed an overall improvement in SDG indicators in all States/UTs.

The NFHS-5 has captured the data from 2019-20. There was a delay in the report because of the Covid-19.
The 5th round of the survey included the following new areas:

Expanded domains of child immunization
Components of micro-nutrients to children
Menstrual hygiene
Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use
Additional components of non-communicable diseases (NCDs)
Expanded age ranges for measuring hypertension and diabetes among all aged 15 years and above for strengthening existing programmes and evolving new strategies for policy intervention.

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